INTEGRATED SUPPLY CHAIN AND MANUFACTURING
COMPETITIVENESS: A LITERATURE REVIEW
As we enter the twenty first century, there is a great change in business competition from single alone competition to network competition. It means that the supply chain which compete in the business competition and no longer individual firm. This condititon will have effect on a clear strategy which needed to compete with other competitors. Companies must have a clear vision about how they are going to be distinctly different and unique, how they are offering something different from their rivals to some different group of costumer. Today’s supply chain are placing their focus on how to optimize their performance and how to modify their perspective to align their competence and capability with the wants, desires, and needs of their customers.
In order to defined in this competitive market and to win the business competition, companies have to search and implement the best strategy for their business activity without ignoring their business competition. In other words, companies have to decide a good and appropriate strategy as a key millenium. In time of change, companies have two choices whether they will sit out the change until it utility become obsolete or seize the initiative and take action to grow faster and more profitability thain their competitors.
This paper is a literature review about the role of integrated supply chain on achieving manufacturing competitiveness. Section one will discuss the shifting of supply chain management in the recent past and in the future from operational change view. Section two will comparing the concept of supply chain management and integrated supply chain, the role of integrated supply chain in improving manufacturing competitiveness will be discussed in the third section.
The Operational Change in Supply Chain Management
Supply chain management is an integrative philosophy to manage the total flow of a distribution channel from supplier to the ultimate user. It is include partnerships and alliance among vendor, manufactures, and transformation of public warehousing companies. The idea of supply chain and its associated concepts is not new and arise from the three main stages in logistics evolution. The first stage. Many companies focused their attention on the physcal distribution or outbound logistic system, where goods were pushed through the supply chain system did not consider what customer wants but rather tried to predict what it would be. These factors encompasses the more rational customer about the product, globalization of the economy and market has created and increasing competitive pressure, technological change, changing channel structure, and government policy resulted in lower cost and higher transportation service.
Comparing Supply Chain Management and Integrated Supply Chain
The issue of supply chain management is not new in today’s bussines compettion since it is known that the imprtant of time as competitive weapon and the ability to meet customer and market demand with shorter delivery times has been recognizedespecially in network competition. Getting the right time to the customer is not only crucial to competitive success but also the key to survival. Having the right product available, in the right place at the right time, enables the business to compete in this volatile market place. Williamson et al. Defined supply chain management as the managementof interconnecton of organization which relate to each other through upstream and downstream linkage between the different process that produce value in the form of product and services to the ultimste consumer. While seuring defined supply chain management as the integration of these activities through improved supply chain relationship, to achive a sustainable comprtitive advantage.
Integrated Supply Chain and Manufacturing Competitiveness
The 21 st century global market characterized by electronically connected and dynamic in nature competition, companies are concering to improve their organizational competitiveness.
In today’s information-driven, integrated supply chains are enabling organization to reduce inventory and costs, add product value, extend resources, accelerate time to market, and retain customer. Integrated chain management emerged and developed within the wider context of sustainable development, which is defined as a development that meets the needs of the present without compromishing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The external and internal integration can be accomplished by continous standardization of each internal logistic function and by efficient information sharing and strategic linkage with supplier and customer. It is therefore, the informationtechnology application play an important role in each stages of supply chain integration.
An inter-organizational information system has positive effect for all partners both internal and external partner to gain the information sharing. Both buyer and supplier can extend reach into partner system and able to see the operational information. The use of information technology can reduce supply chain management cost. Regarding the customer service improvement, the application of information technology will provide customer with their requirement in term of product, service and information that are essential in bussines today. Through it such as internet companies can improve communication with customer by receiving their complaints emergency notification and 24 hours acces to company information.
Managing an Integrated Supply Chain for Manufacturing competitiveness
The most important success factor to determined company’s success is having competitive advantage through organizational capability in differentiate themselves with their competitors and to produce a product or services in a lower cost. Competitive advantage can be achieved if companies have a high productivity, it means if the can produce in a higher volume of production so that the average cost can be reduced, otherwise the fixed cost are persistent, so the total cost is lower. There are some activities to support company’s productivity such as reducing inventory, reducing cost of production planning through some imprtant areas such as inventory and quality control, distribution plan, and scheduling.
rantai suplai Hari ini adalah menempatkan mereka fokus pada bagaimana mengoptimalkan kinerja mereka dan bagaimana memodifikasi perspektif mereka untuk menyelaraskan kompetensi dan kemampuan dengan yang diinginkan, keinginan, dan kebutuhan pelanggan mereka.
Makalah ini merupakan tinjauan literatur tentang peran rantai pasokan terpadu untuk mencapai daya saing manufaktur. Bagian satu akan membahas pergeseran manajemen rantai pasokan pada masa lalu dan di masa depan dari pandangan perubahan operasional. Bagian dua akan membandingkan konsep manajemen rantai pasokan dan rantai pasokan terpadu, peran rantai pasokan terpadu dalam meningkatkan daya saing manufaktur akan dibahas pada bagian ketiga.
Perubahan Operasional dalam Manajemen Rantai Pasokan
Hal ini termasuk kemitraan dan aliansi di antara vendor, manufaktur, dan transformasi perusahaan pergudangan publik. Ide rantai suplai dan konsep yang terkait adalah bukan hal baru dan timbul dari tiga tahap utama dalam evolusi logistik. Tahap pertama. Membandingkan Supply Chain dan Supply Chain Manajemen Terpadu
Mendapatkan waktu yang tepat untuk pelanggan tidak hanya penting untuk keberhasilan kompetitif tetapi juga merupakan kunci untuk kelangsungan hidup. Memiliki produk yang tepat tersedia, di tempat yang tepat pada waktu yang tepat, memungkinkan bisnis untuk bersaing di pasar volatile. Williamson et al.manajemen rantai pasokan Ditetapkan sebagai interconnecton managementof organisasi yang saling berhubungan melalui keterkaitan hulu dan hilir antara proses yang berbeda yang menghasilkan nilai dalam bentuk produk dan layanan kepada konsumen ultimste. Sementara manajemen rantai pasokan seuring didefinisikan sebagai integrasi kegiatan tersebut melalui hubungan rantai pasokan ditingkatkan, untuk mencapai keuntungan comprtitive berkelanjutan.
Integrated Supply Chain dan Daya Saing Industri
Pasar global abad ke 21 ditandai dengan elektronik terhubung dan dinamis dalam kompetisi alam, perusahaan concering untuk meningkatkan daya saing organisasi mereka.
Dalam organisasi hari ini informasi-driven, rantai pasokan terpadu memungkinkan untuk mengurangi persediaan dan biaya, menambah nilai produk, memperluas sumber daya, mempercepat waktu ke pasar, dan mempertahankan pelanggan. Integrasi eksternal dan internal dapat dicapai dengan standarisasi yang terus-menerus setiap fungsi logistik internal dan dengan berbagi informasi yang efisien dan hubungan strategis dengan pemasok dan pelanggan. Oleh karena itu, aplikasi informationtechnology memainkan peran penting dalam setiap tahapan integrasi rantai pasokan.
Sistem informasi antar organisasi berpengaruh positif untuk semua mitra baik internal maupun eksternal mitra untuk mendapatkan berbagi informasi.